Influenza

Influenza


Influenza surveilance statistics; graphs, charts, and maps.  See where the flu is spreading, which states
are effected, and how many cases have been reported.

Influenza SummarySeasonal FluFlu Q&ASwine Fluen Español什么是 2009 H1N1 流

Influenza (Flu) Basics
Influenza, commonly known as the flu, is an infectious disease caused by RNA viruses of the family Orthomyxoviridae (the influenza viruses), that affects birds and mammals. The name influenza comes from the Italian: influenza, meaning “influence” (Latin: influentia). In humans, common symptoms of the disease are chills, fever, pharyngitis, muscle pains,severe headache, coughing, weakness and general discomfort.

In more serious cases, influenza causes pneumonia, which can be fatal, particularly for the young and the elderly. Although it is often confused with the common cold, influenza is a much more severe disease and is caused by a different type of virus. Influenza can produce nausea and vomiting, especially in children, but these symptoms are more common in the unrelated disease gastroenteritis, which is sometimes called “stomach flu” or “24-hour flu”.

Typically, influenza is transmitted from infected mammals through the air by coughs or sneezes, creating aerosols containing the virus, and from infected birds through their droppings. Influenza can also be transmitted by saliva, nasal secretions, faeces and blood. Infections also occur through contact with these body fluids or with contaminated surfaces. Flu viruses can remain infectious for about one week at human body temperature, over 30 days at 0 °C (32 °F), and for much longer periods at very low temperatures. Most influenza strains can be inactivated easily by disinfectants and detergents

Flu spreads around the world in seasonal epidemics, resulting in the deaths of hundreds of thousands annually — millions in pandemic years. Three influenza pandemics occurred in the 20th century and killed tens of millions of people. Each of these pandemics was caused by the appearance of a new strain of the virus in humans. Often new strains of flu virus result from the spread of an existing flu virus to humans from other animal species.

Vaccinations against influenza are usually given to people in developed countries and to farmed poultry. The most common human vaccine is the trivalent influenza vaccine (TIV) that contains purified and inactivated material from three viral strains. Typically, this vaccine includes material from two influenza A virus subtypes and one influenza B virus strain. The TIV carries no risk of transmitting the disease, and it has very low reactivity. A vaccine formulated for one year may be ineffective in the following year, since the influenza virus evolves rapidly, and different strains become dominant. Antiviral drugs can be used to treat influenza, with neuraminidase inhibitors being particularly effective

20th Century Pandemics:              
1918    – Originated in Europe       
click here for more information
             1968     Originated in Hong Kong    click here for more information
1990’s  – Originated in Asia             click here for more information

     Click here for more information on the current flu outbreak

Influenza (Flu) Dictionary

Avian Flu (influenza)\ ey-vee-uhn\ from Latin avis, of, relating to, or derived from birds +ˈflü\ by shortening; avian flu (AL) is caused by influenza viruses that ocur naturally among wild birds. Low pathogenic AI is common in birds and causes few problems. Highly pathogenic H5N1 (H1N1) is deadly to domestic fowl, can be transmitted from birds to humans, and is deadly to humans. There is virtually no human immunity and human vaccine availability is very limited.

Bird Flu \ˈbərd\from English a feathered vertebrate + ˈflü\ by shortening\”avian influenza”; a severe, often fatal influenza A infection caused by strains of a subtype (H5N1)/(H1N1) of the causative orthomyxovirus that have produced epidemics in domestic birds especially in Asia with sporadic associated human infections. Typically, migratory birds are common hosts of the virus; do not become infected themselves; infect domestic birds, including chickens, other poultry.  Bird flu is commonly referred to as Avian flu (see above).

Epidemic \ ep·i·dem·ic \ e-pə-ˈde-mik\from Greek epi- + dēmos people; affecting or tending to affect a disproportionately large number of individuals within a population, community, or region at the same time.

H1N1 Virus \scientific notation + vahy-ruhs\from Latin, vīrus, slime, poison; akin to slimeH1N1 Influenza (H1N1flu); a  type A influenza virus.  Type A viruses cause regular outbreaks of respiratory diseases in pigs. People do not normally get swine flu, but human infections can and do occur. This new virus was first detected in the U.S. in April 2009, and has spread to many countries around the world.

Influenza \in·flu·en·za\ in-(ˌ)flü-ˈen-zə\ Italian, literally, influence, from Medieval Latin influentia; from the belief that epidemics were due to the influence of the stars.  Modern day Englsih slang,” flu.”

Pandemic \pan-‘dem-ik\from Greek παν \pan all + δήμος demos, of all the people; a global disease outbreak. An influenza pandemic occurs when a new influenza A virus emerges for which there is little or no immunity in the human population, begins to cause serious illness, and then spreads easily person-to-person worldwide.

Pandemic Flu: \pan-‘dem-ik\from Greek παν pan all + δήμος demos, of all the people + ˈflü\ by shortening \ pandemic flu is virulent human flu that causes a global outbreak, or pandemic, of serious illness. Because there is little natural immunity, the disease can spread easily from person to person. A global flu outbreak.

Seasonal Flu \sea·son·al \ˈsēz-nəl, ˈsē-zən-əl + ˈflü\ by shortening \ of, relating to, or varying in occurrence according to the season (time of year). Seasonal (or common) flu is a respiratory illness that can be transmitted person to person. Most people have some immunity, and a vaccine is available.

Type A Influenza Virus \scientific notation\new virus strains ( in virus (biology); influenza viruses that infect birds are called avian “A” influenza viruses. Only influenza A viruses (and all known subtypes of influenza A viruses) infect birds. There are significant genetic differences between the subtypes that typically infect both people and birds. Within the  subtypes of avian influenza A viruses there are different strains.  Influenza A viruses that infect humans can undergo a dramatic antigenic change, called antigenic shift, which generates viruses that cause pandemics.

Flu shots are now being given at
St. Francois County Health Center
8:00– 3:30pm
Monday – Friday
                          For more information call 573.431.1947 ext 131

Persons for whom influenza vaccination is particularly important are:

• All children 6 months to five years of age
• Adults 50 years of age and older
• Person 5-49 years of age with underlying chronic medical conditions
• All women who will be pregnant during influenza season
• Residents of nursing homes and long-term care facilities
• Children 6 months to 18 years of age on chronic aspirin therapy
• All health-care workers
• Out-of-home caregivers and household contacts of children less than 6 months of age
• Any persons who would like to reduce their risk of contracting influenza

In addition to influenza vaccine, pneumococcal polysaccharide vaccine is recommended for
all persons in the following groups:
• Persons 65 years of age and older
• Persons 2 years of age and older with normal immune systems, who are at increased
risk for illness and death associated with pneumococcal disease because of chronic illness
• Persons 2 years of age and older with functional or anatomic asplenia
• Persons 2 years of age and older living in environments in which the risk for disease is high
• Persons 2 years of age and older living in environments in which the risk for disease is high
• Immunocompromised persons 2 years of age and older who are at high risk for infection

 In addition to immunization, people can protect themselves from influenza and other communicable diseases by practicing healthy habits such as regular hand hygiene, respiratory hygiene, and staying home when ill.

State Office of Risk Management – SORM
Check out this humerous video concerning how to stay healthy through the flu season.

MDHSS & CDC  –  Seasonal Flu

CDC promotes “Take 3” against influenza this season.

1. Take time to get vaccinated.

2. Take everyday actions to stop germs, like frequent hand washing and covering coughs and sneezes.

3. Take antiviral drugs if your doctor says you need them.

MDHSS promotes “Ready In 3”

Order Your Pandemic
Influenza Community
Guide in
Braille | English
Spanish | Bosnian 

Annual vaccination against influenza is recommended for:

  • All persons, including school-aged children, who want to reduce the risk of becoming ill with influenza or of transmitting influenza to others
  • All children aged6-59 months (6 months-4 years)
  • All persons aged 50 years or older
  • Children and adolescents (6 months-18 years) receiving long-term aspirin therapy who therefore might be at rick of experinecing Reye Syndrome after influenza virus infection
  • Women who will be pregnant during the influenza season
  • Adults and children who have chronic pulmonary (including asthma), cardiovascular (except hypertension), renal, hepatic, hematological or metabolic disorders (including diabetes memellitus)
  • Adults and children who have immunosuppression (including immunosuppression caused by medications or by human immunodeficiency virus)
  • Adults and children who have any condition (cognitive dysfunction, spinal cord injuries, seizure disorders, or other neuromuscular disorders) that can comprimise respiratory function or the handling of respiratory secretions or that can increase the risk of aspiration
  • Residents of nursing homes and other chronic-care facilities
  • Health-care personnel
Healthy household contacts (including children) and caregivers of children aged 5 years or older and adults aged 50 year or older, with particular emphasis on vaccinating contacts of children aged 6 months or less
Healthy household contacts (including children) and caregivers of persons with medical conditions that put them at higher risk for severe complications from influenza.

For more information on influenza, go to the Missouri Department of Health and Senior Services’ (DHSS’) website here

or

The CDC (Center for Disease Control) website

or

For information on Seasonal Flu for Employees and Businesses go to CDC
(Center for Disease Control) website here

Flu – Questions and Answers

Q  What is H1N1 (swine) flu?
A H1N1 Influenza (swine flu) is a respiratory disease of pigs caused by type A influenza viruses. Outbreaks of swine flu happen regularly in pigs. People do not normally get swine flu, but human infections can and do happen. Most commonly, human cases of swine flu happen in people who are around pigs but it’s possible for swine flu viruses to spread from person to person also.

Is there a vaccine available for the H1N1 Influenza (swine flu)?
A  A vaccine will be available.  Availability is projected for fall 2009; perhaps October.

Q  Can people catch H1N1 (swine) flu from eating pork?
A No. H1N1 (swine) influenza viruses are not transmitted by food. You can not get H1N1 (swine) influenza from eating pork or pork products. Eating properly handled and cooked pork and pork products is safe. Cooking pork to an internal temperature of 160°F kills the H1N1 (swine) flu virus as it does other bacteria and viruses.
Q  Are there human infections with H1N1 (swine) flu in the U.S.?
A In late March and early April 2009, cases of human infection with swine influenza A (H1N1) viruses were first reported in Southern California and near San Antonio, Texas. The CDC and local and state health agencies are working together to investigate this situation. An updated case count of confirmed H1N1 (swine) flu infections in the United States is kept at http://www.cdc.gov/swineflu/investigation.htm. CDC and local and state health agencies are working together to investigate this situation.

Q  How many H1N1 (swine) flu viruses are there?
A Like all influenza viruses, swine flu viruses change constantly. Pigs can be infected by avian influenza and human influenza viruses as well as swine influenza viruses. When influenza viruses from different species infect pigs, the viruses can reassort (i.e. swap genes) and new viruses that are a mix of swine, human and/or avian influenza viruses can emerge. Over the years, different variations of swine flu viruses have emerged. At this time, there are four main influenza type A virus subtypes that have been isolated in pigs: H1N1, H1N2, H3N2, and H3N1. However, most of the recently isolated influenza viruses from pigs have been H1N1 viruses.

Q  Is this H1N1 (swine) flu virus contagious?
A CDC has determined that this virus is contagious and is spreading from human to human. However, at this time, it is not known how easily the virus spreads between people.

Q  What are the signs and symptoms of H1N1 (swine) flu in people?
The symptoms of H1N1 (swine) flu in people are similar to the symptoms of regular human flu and include fever, cough, sore throat, body aches, headache, chills and fatigue. Some people have reported diarrhea and vomiting associated with H1N1 (swine) flu. In the past, severe illness (pneumonia and respiratory failure) and deaths have been reported with H1N1 (swine) flu infection in people. Like seasonal flu, H1N1 (swine) flu may cause a worsening of underlying chronic medical conditions.

Q  How serious is H1N1 (swine) flu infection?  Can this be life threatening?
A Like seasonal flu, H1N1 (swine) flu in humans can vary in severity from mild to severe. Between 2005 until January 2009, 12 human cases of swine flu were detected in the U.S. with no deaths occurring. However, swine flu infection can be serious. In September 1988, a previously healthy 32-year-old pregnant woman in Wisconsin was hospitalized for pneumonia after being infected with swine flu and died 8 days later. A swine flu outbreak in Fort Dix, New Jersey occurred in 1976 that caused more than 200 cases with serious illness in several people and one death.

Q  How do you catch H1N1 (swine) flu?
A Spread of H1N1 (swine) flu can occur in two ways:

  • Through contact with infected pigs or environments contaminated with swine flu viruses.
  • Through contact with a person with H1N1 (swine) flu.
    • Human-to-human spread of H1N1 (swine) flu has been documented also and is thought to occur in the same way as seasonal flu.
    • Influenza is thought to spread mainly person-to-person through coughing or sneezing of infected people.

Q Are there medicines to treat H1N1 (swine) flu?
A Yes. CDC recommends the use of oseltamivir (brand name Tamiflu ®) or zanamivir (brand name Relenza ®) for the treatment and/or prevention of infection with these H1N1 (swine) influenza viruses. Antiviral drugs are prescription medicines (pills, liquid or an inhaler) that fight against the flu by keeping flu viruses from reproducing in your body. If you get sick, antiviral drugs can make your illness milder and make you feel better faster. They may also prevent serious flu complications. For treatment, antiviral drugs work best if started soon after getting sick (within 2 days of symptoms).

Q How long can an infected person spread H1N1 (swine) flu to others?
A People with H1N1 (swine) influenza virus infection should be considered potentially contagious as long as they are symptomatic and possible for up to 7 days following illness onset. Children, especially younger children, might potentially be contagious for longer periods.
Q  What can I do on a day to day basis to protect myself from getting sick?
A There are everyday actions that can help prevent the spread of germs that cause respiratory illnesses like influenza.

  • Take these everyday steps to protect your health:
    • Cover your nose and mouth with a tissue when you cough or sneeze.
      Throw the tissue in the trash after you use it.
    • Remind others to cover their nose and mouth with a tissue when they cough or sneeze.
      Remind them to throw their tissue in the trash after they use it.
    • Wash your hands often with soap and water, especially after you cough or sneeze.
      Alcohol-based hand cleaners are also effective.
    • Remind others that washing their hands is one of the best preventions against getting or spreading a flu virus.
    • Avoid touching your eyes, nose or mouth. Germs spread this way.
    • Try to avoid close contact with sick people.
    • If you get sick with influenza, CDC and SFCHC recommends that you stay home from work or school and limit contact with others to keep from infecting them.

The spread of many viral diseases can be prevented by hygienic factors such as efficient sanitation facilities, effective waste disposal, clean water, and personal cleanliness. Active immunization by vaccines (antigen-containing preparations that elicit the synthesis of antibodies and thus immunity) has been useful in preventing common epidemics caused by acutely infectious viruses.

Q  How can someone with the flu infect someone else?
A Infected people may be able to infect others beginning 1 day before symptoms develop and up to 7 or more days after becoming sick. That means that you may be able to pass on the flu to someone else before you know you are sick, as well as while you are sick.

Q  What should I do to keep from getting the flu?
A First and most important: wash your hands. Touching your eyes, nose, and mouth with infected hands is a very common way of spreading the virus from one person to another.  Avoid touching your eyes, nose, and mouth. Try not to touch surfaces that may be contaminated with the flu virus.
Try to stay in good general health. Get plenty of sleep, be physically active, manage your stress, drink plenty of fluids, and eat nutritious food.  Avoid close contact with people who are sick or have symptoms associated with the flu.

Q  What is the best way to keep from spreading the virus through coughing or sneezing?
A If you are sick, limit your contact with other people as much as possible. Do not go to work or school if ill. Cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when coughing or sneezing. It may prevent those around you from getting sick. Put your used tissue in the waste basket. Cover your cough or sneeze if you do not have a tissue. Then, clean your hands, and do so every time you cough or sneeze.

Q  What is the best technique for washing my hands to avoid getting the flu?
A Washing your hands often will help protect you from germs. Wash with soap and water. or clean with alcohol-based hand cleaner. we recommend that when you wash your hands — with soap and warm water — that you wash for 15 to 20 seconds. When soap and water are not available, alcohol-based disposable hand wipes or gel sanitizers may be used. You can find them in most supermarkets and drugstores. If using gel, rub your hands until the gel is dry. The gel doesn’t need water to work; the alcohol in it kills the germs on your hands.

Q  What should I do if I get sick?
A If you live in areas that have reported cases and become ill with influenza-like symptoms, including fever, body aches, runny nose, sore throat, nausea, or vomiting or diarrhea, you may want to contact their health care provider, particularly if you are worried about your symptoms. Your health care provider will determine whether influenza testing or treatment is needed.
If you are sick, you should stay home and avoid contact with other people as much as possible to keep from spreading your illness to others.

 If you become ill and experience any of the following warning signs, seek emergency medical care.

  • In children emergency warning signs that need urgent medical attention include.
  •  Fast breathing or trouble breathing
  • Bluish skin color
  •  Not drinking enough fluids
  • Not waking up or not interacting
  • Being so irritable that the child does not want to be held
  • Flu-like symptoms improve but then return with fever and worse cough
  • Fever with a rash
  • In adults, emergency warning signs that need urgent medical attention include:
    • Difficulty breathing or shortness of breath
    • Pain or pressure in the chest or abdomen
    • Sudden dizziness
    • Confusion
    • Severe or persistent vomiting

Q  What is an influenza pandemic?
A A pandemic is a global disease outbreak. An influenza pandemic occurs when a new influenza A virus emerges for which there is little or no immunity in the human population, begins to cause serious illness, and then spreads easily person-to-person worldwide.

Q  Why are pandemics such dreaded events?
A Influenza pandemics are remarkable events that can rapidly infect virtually all countries. Once international spread begins, pandemics are considered unstoppable, because the virus spreads very rapidly by coughing or sneezing. The fact that infected people can share the virus before symptoms appear adds to the risk of international spread via travelers. 
     The severity of disease and the number of deaths caused by a pandemic virus vary greatly, and cannot be known prior to the emergence of the virus. During past pandemics, attack rates reached 25-35% of the total population. Under the best circumstances, assuming that the new virus causes mild disease, the world could still experience an estimated 2 million to 7.4 million deaths (projected from data obtained during the 1957 pandemic). Projections for a more virulent virus are much higher. The 1918 pandemic, which was uniquely severe, killed at least 40 million people. In the US, the mortality rate of people infected with the virus during that pandemic was around 2.5%.
      During a severe pandemic, such as the one that occurred in 1918, there would be large surges in the numbers of people requiring or seeking medical or hospital treatment, temporarily overwhelming health services. High rates of worker absenteeism could also interrupt other essential services, such as law enforcement, transportation, and communications. Because populations will be fully susceptible to a pandemic virus, rates of illness could peak fairly rapidly within a given community. This means that local social and economic disruptions may be temporary. They may, however, be amplified in today’s closely interrelated and interdependent systems of trade and commerce. As all countries are likely to experience emergency conditions during a pandemic, opportunities for inter-country assistance, as seen during natural disasters or localized disease outbreaks, may be curtailed once international spread has begun and governments focus on protecting domestic populations.

Q What age groups are most likely to be affected during an influenza pandemic?
A Although scientists cannot predict the specific consequences of an influenza pandemic, it is likely that many age groups would be seriously affected. The greatest risk of hospitalization and death – as seen during the last two pandemics in 1957 and 1968 and during annual influenza – will be infants, the elderly, and those with underlying health conditions. However, in the 1918 pandemic, most deaths occurred in young adults. Few if any people would have immunity to the virus.

QWhere can I find more information concerning the swine flu?
AClick the tab in the left-hand margin of this page titled, “Swine Flu.”  There is additional information available on that page.  There are also internet links to other sites having information concerning the swine flu.

Video presented by the CDC, Center for Disease Control and Prevention. You can also find out more information concerning Swine Flu by clicking here.

Vacuna contra la influenza 2009 H1N1 

Inactivada (“vacuna inyectable”):

Lo que usted debe saber

Muchas declaraciones de información sobre las vacunas están disponibles en español y otros idiomas. Vea  http://www.immunize.org/vis.

 1. ¿Qué es la influenza 2009 H1N1?

La influenza (gripe) 2009 H1N1 (también llamada influenza o gripe porcina) es causada por una nueva cepa del virus de la influenza. Este virus se ha propagado a muchos países.

Tal como ocurre con otros virus de la influenza, el virus 2009 H1N1 se transmite de persona a persona a través de la tos, los estornudos, y en ocasiones, al tocar objetos contaminados con el virus.

Los signos de la influenza 2009 H1N1 pueden incluir:

• Fatiga
• Fiebre
• Dolor de garganta
• Dolor muscular
• Escalofríos
• Tos
• Estornudos

Algunas personas también pueden tener diarrea y vómito. La mayoría de las personas se sienten bien en una semana. Pero ciertas personas contraen neumonía u otras enfermedades graves. Algunas personas tienen que ser hospitalizadas y algunas mueren.

 2. ¿En qué se diferencia la 2009 H1N1 de la influenza común (estacional)?

Los virus de la influenza estacional cambian todos los años, pero están estrechamente relacionados entre sí.

Las personas que han tenido infecciones de la influenza en el pasado suelen tener cierta inmunidad a los virus de la influenza estacional (sus cuerpos han adquirido cierta capacidad para combatir los virus).

El virus 2009 H1N1 es un nuevo virus de la influenza. Es muy diferente de los virus de la influenza estacional.

La mayoría de las personas tienen poca o ninguna inmunidad contra la influenza 2009 H1N1 (sus cuerpos no están preparados para combatir el virus).

 3. Vacuna contra la influenza 2009 H1N1

Hay vacunas disponibles para proteger contra la influenza 2009 H1N1.

• Estas vacunas se producen de la misma manera que las vacunas contra la influenza estacional.
• Se anticipa que sean tan seguras y eficaces como las vacunas contra la influenza estacional.
• No previenen enfermedades “similares a la influenza” causadas por otros virus.
• No previenen la influenza estacional. Usted también debe ponerse la vacuna contra la influenza estacional si quiere estar protegido contra esta enfermedad.

La vacuna inactivada (una vacuna que contiene un virus muerto) se inyecta en el músculo, tal como se aplica la vacuna anual contra la influenza. Esta hoja describe la vacuna inactivada.

También hay disponible una vacuna viva, intranasal (la vacuna en atomizador nasal). Esta vacuna se describe en otra hoja informativa.

Algunas vacunas inactivadas contra el virus de la influenza 2009 H1N1 contienen un conservante llamado tiomersal para evitar que se contaminen con gérmenes. Algunas personas han sugerido que el tiomersal podría estar relacionado con el autismo. En el 2004, un grupo de expertos del Instituto de Medicina (Institute of Medicine) revisó muchos estudios para investigar esta teoría, pero no encontró ninguna asociación entre el tiomersal y el autismo. Otros estudios realizados desde entonces han llegado a la misma conclusión.

 4. ¿Quién debe recibir la vacuna contra la influenza 2009 H1N1 y cuándo?
QUIÉN
Los grupos a los que se recomienda administrar primero la vacuna contra la influenza 2009 H1N1 son: • Mujeres embarazadas
• Personas que viven con niños menores de 6 meses de edad o personas encargadas de su cuidado
• Personal de atención médica y de servicios médicos de emergencia
• Toda persona entre los 6 meses y 24 años de edad
• Toda persona entre los 25 y 64 años de edad con ciertas afecciones médicas crónicas o un sistema inmunitario debilitado A medida que haya más vacunas disponibles, los siguientes grupos también deben ser vacunados:
• Personas saludables entre los 25 y 64 años de edad
• Adultos de 65 años en adelante El gobierno federal está ofreciendo esta vacuna para las personas que la quieran recibir en forma voluntaria. Sin embargo, las leyes estatales o los empleadores pueden requerir la vacunación de ciertas personas.

CUÁNDO
Vacúnese tan pronto como la vacuna esté disponible. Los niños hasta los 9 años de edad deben recibir dos dosis
de la vacuna, con un intervalo de aproximadamente un mes. Los niños de más edad y los adultos solo necesitan una dosis.

 5. Algunas personas no deben vacunarse o deben esperar
Usted no debe vacunarse contra la influenza 2009 H1N1 si tiene una alergia grave (que puede ser mortal) a los huevos, o a cualquier otra sustancia que se encuentre en la vacuna
.Dígale a la persona que le esté poniendo la vacuna si usted tiene alguna alergia grave.
También diga si alguna vez ha tenido:
• una reacción potencialmente mortal después de recibir una dosis de la vacuna contra la influenza estacional,
• Síndrome de Guillain-Barré (una enfermedad paralizante grave también llamada en inglés GBS). Estas podrían no ser razones para evitar la vacuna, pero el personal médico puede ayudarle a decidir. Si usted está grave o moderadamente enfermo, podrían recomendarle que espere hasta estar recuperado antes de recibir la vacuna. Si tiene un resfriado u otra enfermedad leve, generalmente no hay necesidad de esperar.

Las mujeres embarazadas o las que están amamantando pueden recibir la vacuna inactivada contra la influenza 2009 H1N1.

La vacuna inactivada contra la influenza 2009 H1N1 puede administrarse al mismo tiempo que otras vacunas, incluida la vacuna contra la influenza estacional.

 6. ¿Cuáles son los riesgos de la vacuna contra la influenza 2009 H1N1?
Una vacuna, como todo medicamento, podría causar un problema serio, como una grave reacción alérgica. Pero el riesgo de que alguna vacuna cause un daño grave o la muerte, es extremadamente pequeño. El virus en la vacuna inactivada contra la influenza 2009 H1N1 está muerto, por lo tanto usted no puede contagiarse de la influenza debido a la vacuna. Los riesgos de la vacuna inactivada contra la influenza 2009 H1N1 son similares a aquellos de la vacuna inactivada contra la influenza estacional:

Problemas leves:
• dolor, molestia, enrojecimiento o hinchazón en el sitio donde se aplicó la vacuna. • desmayo (principalmente en adolescentes)
• dolor de cabeza,
• dolores musculares
• fiebre
• náuseas Si estos problemas se presentan, por lo general empiezan poco después de la inyección y duran entre 1 y 2 días.

Problemas graves:
• Las reacciones alérgicas potencialmente mortales a la vacuna son muy inusuales. Si ocurren, generalmente tienen lugar entre unos cuantos minutos a unas cuantas horas después de la inyección. • En 1976, una versión anterior de la vacuna contra la influenza porcina fue asociada con casos del síndrome de Guillain-Barré (GBS). Desde entonces, las vacunas contra la influenza no se han vinculado claramente con el GBS.

 7. ¿Qué hago si hay una reacción grave?
¿De qué debo estar pendiente?
De toda situación inusual, como fiebre alta o cambios en la conducta. Los signos de una reacción alérgica grave pueden incluir dificultad para respirar, ronquera o sibilancias, urticaria, palidez, debilidad, latidos rápidos del corazón o mareo.

¿Qué debo hacer?
Llame a un médico o lleve a la persona al médico de inmediato.
Dígale al médico lo que ocurrió, la fecha y la hora en que pasó, y cuándo se administró la vacuna.
Pídale a su proveedor de atención médica que reporte la reacción llenando un formulario en el Sistema de Notificación de Reacciones Adversas a las Vacunas (Vaccine Adverse Event Reporting System o VAERS). También usted puede reportar esta situación visitando el sitio web de VAERS enhttp://www.vaers.hhs.gov o llamando al 1-800-822-7967.

El VAERS no ofrece consejos médicos.

 8. Compensación por lesiones causadas por las vacunas
Si usted o su niño tiene una reacción a la vacuna, la capacidad que usted tiene de demandar es limitada por ley. Sin embargo, se ha creado un programa federal para ayudar a pagar por la atención médica y otros gastos específicos de ciertas personas que tienen una reacción grave a esta vacuna. Para obtener más información sobre este programa, llame al 1-888-275-4772 o visite el sitio web del programa en: http://www.hrsa.gov/countermeasurescomp/default.htm
.

 9. ¿Cómo puedo obtener más información?
•Pregúntele a su proveedor de atención médica. Ellos pueden darle las instrucciones que vienen dentro de la caja de la vacuna o sugerirle otras fuentes de información. • Llame a su departamento de salud local o estatal. • Comuníquese con los Centros para el Control y la Prevención de Enfermedades (CDC): -Llame al 1-800-232-4636 (1-800-CDC-INFO) o -Visite el sitio web de los CDC en http://espanol.cdc.gov/enes/h1n1flu/ o http://www.cdc.gov/flu
• Visite la siguiente página de Internet: http://www.flu.gov

 

2009 H1N1 流感疫苗

灭活性 (“流感疫苗”)

许多疫苗信息声明提供西班牙语和其它语言版本。请参阅 http://www.immunize.org/vis

流感须知
1.  什么是 2009 H1N1 流感?
2009 H1N1 流感(也称作猪流感)由一种新型的流感病毒引发。目前已传播至许多国家。 如同其它流感病毒一样, 2009 H1N1 流感通过感染者咳嗽、打喷嚏,有时通过接触被病毒污染的物体在人与人之间传播。
 2009 H1N1 流感的症状包括: ,
• 疲劳 • 发烧 • 喉咙痛 • 肌肉酸痛
• 打寒颤 • 咳嗽 • 打喷嚏有些人还会出现腹泻及呕吐。大部分人的病情在一周内好转。但有些人会引发肺
炎或其它严重疾病。有些患者必须住院治疗,严重者甚至死亡。

2.  2009 H1N1
流感与普通(季节性)流感有什么不同?
季节性流感病毒每年均发生变异,但这些病毒彼此
紧密相关。过去得过流感的人,通常对季节性流感病毒具有一定的免疫力(人体具备抵抗病毒的能力)。
2009 H1N1 流感是一种新型流感病毒。它与季节性
流感病毒差别很大。大部分人对 2009 H1N1 流感具有极低免疫力或不具免疫力(人体未准备好抵抗病毒)。
3.  2009 H1N1 流感疫苗
预防 2009 H1N1 流感的疫苗已向公众提供。
• 这些疫苗的生产方法与季节性流感疫苗一样。
• 预计与季节性流感疫苗一样安全有效。
• 无法预防由其它病毒引发的“类流感”疾病。
• 无法预防季节性流感。如果想预防季节性流感,还应接种季节性流感疫苗。
灭活疫苗(杀死当中病毒的疫苗)如每年注射一次的流感疫苗一样,被注射入肌肉。本说明书介绍了灭活疫苗。
此外,还提供经鼻吸收的活性疫苗(鼻内喷雾疫
苗)。该疫苗在单独的说明书中介绍。部分 2009 H1N1 流感灭活疫苗包含称作硫柳汞钠的防腐剂,以防范病菌。有些人认为硫柳汞钠可能与诱发自闭症有关。 2004 年,医学研究所 (Institute of Medicine) 的一组专家查阅了对这个理论的大量研究,发现硫柳汞钠与自闭症无任何关联。此后的其它研究也得出相同的结论。
4.  哪些人应在何时接种
2009 H1N1 流感疫苗?
适合人群
建议首先接种 2009 H1N1 流感疫苗的人群有:
• 孕妇
•与不到 6 个月的婴儿一起居住或照顾不到 6 个月婴儿的人士
• 健康护理和急救人员
• 6 个月至 24岁的任何人
• 任何患有某些慢性疾病或免疫系统较差的 25
岁至 64 岁的人士随着越来越多的疫苗向公众提供,以下人群也应接种疫苗:
• 25 岁至 64岁的健康人士
• 65 岁及以上的人士
联邦政府正大量提供该疫苗,公众可自愿接种。但是,州法律或雇主可能要求为某些人员接种疫苗。接种时间一旦有疫苗提供,请尽快接种。 9岁以下儿童应接种两次疫苗,中间间隔约一个
月。9 岁以上儿童及成人仅需接种一次。
5.  有些人不应接种疫苗或应稍后接种
如果发生严重反应,该怎么办?
如果您对鸡蛋或疫苗中的任何其它成分严重(危及生命)过敏,不应接种 2009 H1N1 流感疫苗。如果您有任何严重过敏反应,应告知为您接种疫苗的人员。
亦告诉他们,您是否曾经:
• 在接种一次季节性流感疫苗后出现危及生命的过敏反应,
• 患有格林-巴利综合症(一种严重的瘫痪疾病,也
称作 GBS)。有以上经历的人士可能也能接种疫苗,但医护人员可帮助您确定。
如果您病情严重或危急,医生可能建议您等到康复后再接种疫苗。患有轻微感冒或其它疾病的患者通常可立即接种。
孕妇或哺乳期妇女可接种 2009 H1N1 流感灭活疫
苗。 2009 H1N1流感灭活疫苗可与季节性流感疫苗等其它疫苗同时接种。
6.  接种
2009 H1N1 流感疫苗有何风险?
与任何药物一样,疫苗可能会引发严重问题,如严重的过敏反应。但各种疫苗引起严重损伤或死亡的风险非常小。
2009 H1N1 流感灭活疫苗中的病毒已被杀死,因此
接种疫苗不会感染流感。 2009 H1N1流感灭活疫苗的风险与季节性流感灭活疫苗类似:
 轻微反应:
• 接种疫苗的部位疼痛、发红、敏感或肿胀
• 昏厥(主要为青少年)
• 头痛、肌肉疼痛 • 发烧 • 恶心
 若确实发生,通常在接种疫苗后马上出现,并持续 1 至 2 天。严重反应:
• 对疫苗产生危及生命的过敏反应非常罕见。若确实发生,通常在接种疫苗后几分钟至几个小时内出现。
• 1976 年,较早类型的猪流感疫苗曾与诱发格林 –
巴利综合症 (GBS) 有关。此后,流感疫苗与 GBS 无任何明确关联。
7.  我应注意哪些症状?任何异常状况,如高烧或行为变化。严重过敏反应
表现为:呼吸困难、声音嘶哑或哮喘、出现荨麻疹、脸色苍白、虚弱、心跳过快或头晕。
 我该怎么办?
• 打电话给医生,或立刻去看医生。
•告诉医生具体的过敏反应,过敏的日期和时间,以及疫苗接种时间。
• 请您的健康护理提供者提交疫苗不良事件报告系统 (VAERS) 表格,上报不良反应。您还可通过 VAERS网站 http://www.vaers.hhs.gov 或致电 1-800-822-7967 提交此报告。
VAERS 不提供医疗意见。
8.  疫苗损害赔偿
如果您或您的孩子接种疫苗后,出现不良反应,您
的起诉权受法律限制。但是,联邦政府实施了一项计划,帮助对该疫苗有严重反应的某些人支付医疗护理和其它具体费用。有关该计划的更多信息,请致电 1-888-275-4772或访问计划网站:http://www.hrsa.gov/countermeasurescomp/default.htm
9.  我如何了解 详情?
• 咨询您的服务提供者。他们可向您提供疫苗说明书,或推荐其它信息来源。
• 致电您当地或州的医疗健康部门。
• 联系疾病控制与预防中心 (Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, CDC):
– 致电 1-800-232-4636 (1-800-CDC-INFO) 或
– 访问 CDC的网站, http://www.cdc.gov/h1n1flu 或 http://www.cdc.gov/flu
• 访问网站 http://www.flu.gov